– VW Group CEO Martin Winterkorn, prior to stepping down
– UBS automotive industry analyst Philippe Houchois
– EPA enforcement offi cer Cynthia Giles
– Berlin’s Tagesspiegel newspaper
– Industry analyst Max Warburton
– Renault-Nissan CEO Carlos Ghosn
– VW America president Michael Horn
– French Finance Minister Michael Sapin
THIS is not the first time the US Environmental Protection Agency has taken Volkswagen to task over so-called emission control ‘defeat devices’.
In July 1973 – that’s right, 42 years ago – the EPA took legal action against the company over the sale of 25,000 vehicles sold with two such defeat devices.
The EPA said: “The ‘defeat devices’ consist of two temperature sensing switches which deactivate part of the emissions control system. One cuts out the exhaust gas recirculation system at low temperatures ... the other overrides the transmission controlled spark advance system at low temperatures.”
VW admitted no wrongdoing, but paid a $US120,000 fine. At the same time, the EPA ordered Ford, GM, Chrysler and Toyota to stop using similar devices.