MINUTES earlier, DS Performance technical director Thomas Chevaucher had leaned into the Formula E carís cockpit and asked me not to crash. This, we agreed, was a great plan. DS Performance had brought just one of its DSV-02 allelectric single seaters to Circuit Dreux near Paris, I was about to be the first journalist to drive it, and we were interrupting DS driver Sam Birdís test. Crashing would be expensive, inconvenient and embarrassing. It seemed like a really bad idea.
But now Iím heading down the back straight, closing rapidly on a hairpin, and as I go from full acceleration to full braking I see the top of the treaded tyre stop rotating before I actually feel that Iíve locked the brakes, and sense the back of the car stepping out of line. Things are not playing in slow motion like people always say they do; in fact, Iím pretty sure theyíre speeding up Ė the grass and barriers certainly are.
Thereís a noise like a US police car siren behind me as the electric motors whir, I come off the brake pedal before climbing back on it, add a little twist of steering, and just about make the corner, driving back through my own tyre smoke. I donít think Chevaucher will be pleased. But come on, I canít just trickle round for photography and tell you Iíve Ďdrivení a Formula E car; weíre here to feel what itís like to drive an electric race car as fast as we can. While definitely not crashing.
Formula E is the all-electric, FIA-sanctioned championship that races 12 times a year on temporary street circuits globally. Itís about to enter its fourth season, and itís on a roll. A roster of ex-F1 drivers adds TV-friendly stardust, and manufacturers are taking the series increasingly seriously.
Next year, Audi ups its involvement, Jaguar enters its second season and McLaren batteries will power the entire grid. Nissan also replaces Renault, BMW and Porsche join the series and rumours swirl around Mercedes-Benz. As manufacturers clamour to embrace e-mobility, Formula E looks very well placed indeed.
Of all the major manufacturers, DS is the least familiar name, but itís no less significant. DS Automobiles is the luxury arm of Peugeot-Citroen, DS Performance its high-performance division. In under 18 months, thereíll be an electric DS road car, as previewed by 2016ís E-Tense concept. The engineers are adamant that lessons from Formula E are filtering down into the production carís development.
To control costs, the Dallara carbonfibre chassis, front suspension and aero package is common to all Formula E ABOVE: ďBEST NOT TO TOUCH THAT BUTTON MARKED ĎEJECTí.Ē
BELOW: GROOVED MICHELINS ARE A LONG WAY FROM F1íS MONSTER SLICKS
competitors. The grooved 18-inch tyres are also universal and used for both wet and dry races. Theyíre much more comparable to road cars than the steamroller 13s seen in F1 and with thinner sidewalls the suspension has more work to do on bumpy street circuits.
The rear suspension design is the only component of the chassis that offers scope for the team to adjust, but the powertrain is a different story. The 700-volt lithium-ion battery is common, but the electric motor, three-speed gearbox and inverter are to DS Performanceís design.
Unusually Ė but logically Ė teams are also free to calibrate software. Itís here that they glean deeper insights into energy consumption and conservation, underlining the race-to-road relevance. For now, the batteries take 50 minutes to charge and last half a race Ė the drivers pit for a different, fully charged car Ė but from season five theyíll do a race distance.
ĎWe are two years in advance of road cars,í says Chevaucher. ĎWe donít share technology directly, but itís the understanding thatís important.í
Driver Sam Bird finished fourth overall last season.
He explains that while a Formula E car might feel quite alien to drive in some respects, fundamentally itís a single-seater with four wheels, two pedals and a steering wheel. Driving one fast isnít really the hard part if youíre a professional race driver. The strategy of conserving the electric battery and harvesting energy while racing rivals wheel-to-wheel is the challenge.
ďWe have 28kWh of energy, and you have to use it wisely,Ē he says. ďWe donít drive flat out, but weíre within one second per lap of that and saving around 20 percent of the energy Ė down from 1.4kW to 1kW. But then we donít get full re-gen until the battery is at 80 percent charge, then you have to remember to put the brake-bias further forwards to compensate for the extra braking that re-gen puts through the electric motor at the back.
ďIíve done GP2, World Endurance, and this is the most difficult by far. Weíve got drivers like Buemi, da Costa, Lopez, Vergne, and theyíre all world class, 20 of us within an inch of each other. I think thatís exciting for the fans, ABOVE LEFT: CONTROL FRONT AERO PACKAGE MEANS YOU WONíT FIND ANY EXTRA TENTHS HIDING HERE. ABOVE RIGHT: THE HUNT TO LOCATE THE SPARK PLUGS WENT ON FOR HOURS
as well as relevant to where we are on the planet today.Ē
I climb in the carbonfibre chassis, backside low, feet straight ahead, legs bent a little more than Iíd like, head rest clipped in afterwards and only just clearing my shoulders. Chevaucher attaches the steering wheel, explaining that the middle paddles control the gears, while the top right paddle is for Fanboost. Fans can vote on social media, providing the most popular driver Ė usually di Grassi Ė with an extra burst of energy. With just a few engineers looking on anxiously, thereís little chance of that today. The bottom right paddle is for re-gen. Mysteriously, the purpose of the top and bottom left paddles remains secret.
Formula E cars produce 170kW and weigh around 800kg, which doesnít suggest outlandish performance.
But as I accelerate from a standstill, the torque kicks instantly, the rear rubber bites hard despite being way past its best thanks to Birdís earlier outing, and Iím pushed back in my seat, flung down the straight, hitting 100km/h in three seconds or so.
The sensation of light-switch thrust is similar to a Tesla in Ludicrous mode, but your backside is almost skimming the asphalt, and the vacuum of conventional engine noise is filled by a barrage of wind noise like youíve jumped from a plane in a wing suit. The car is far from completely silent, though: thereís transmission whine and the fizzy bass of the electric motor, which rises and falls in line with acceleration and deceleration like a synthesiserís pitch bender. Itís a very alien soundtrack, but one that isnít without appeal.
The torque means you can stay in one gear the whole time, and Chevaucher says the gears are really there to help energy conservation, but it also feels natural to use them for performance. Thereís a clunk as you pull back the paddleshifter, the familiarity of mechanical engagement amid all the strange whizzing and whirring.
The steering, too, is resolutely analogue. Arriving at the first corner, it feels light and communicative, the turn-in super-direct. I reckon a go-kart would be harder on your arms over a race distance, and Bird confirms
Practice, qualifying and the race itself take place on the same day, so Formula E drivers have to be up to speed immediately. It means simulator training is essential, and itís where I got my first Formula E experience the day before.
It gave me a sense for the acceleration, for the weight of the steering and solid feeling of the brake pedal Ė all of which are perfectly replicated Ė and I get an idea of how pulling the lower right-hand paddle significantly slows you down as it puts negative torque into the electric motor to charge the battery. But I spin frequently and actually drive the real Formula E car better the day after. It happens to some race drivers too, but most can set a time thatís within 0.3sec of their best lap come race-day. Itís back to Gran Turismo for me.
18-INCH WHEELS ARE FITTED WITH GROOVED, ROAD-CAR STYLE MICHELIN TYRES, INFLATED TO 23PSI, AS PART OF THE PUSH FOR ROADRELEVANCE.
MUST WORK IN BOTH WET AND DRY
BRAKES PLAY NO ROLE IN REGENERATING THE BATTERY, BUT THE DRIVER CAN PULL A PADDLE ON THE STEERING WHEEL TO ADD NEGATIVE TORQUE THROUGH THE ELECTRIC MOTOR
CONTROL DALLARA CHASSIS WITH SHARED AERODYNAMIC PACKAGE AND IDENTICAL FRONT SUSPENSION.
MINIMUM WEIGHT IS 880KG, WITH DRIVER Ė A REAL CHALLENGE FOR ENGINEERS ABOVE RIGHT: BECAUSE THEREíS NO FUEL BURN, A FORMULA EíS CHASSIS BALANCE NEVER CHANGES.
IF YOUR SET-UP IS RUBBISH, DONíT EXPECT IT TO COME GOOD LATE IN THE RACE
that, really, the g-forces arenít that high, the cars not especially physically demanding.
The brakes, in comparison, are incredibly firm, and you have to press deep into them to kill speed. The tight cockpit bisected by the steering column means you have to left-foot brake.
Wary of destroying the car and of its worn-out tyres, Iím perhaps a little over-cautious in the faster corners, but Iím never really aware of an aero effect, and the DSV-02 is quite car-like in the way it shifts around slightly beneath you. Feed in throttle as the corner straightens and the electric racer gathers speed with the kind of runaway intensity that makes you tense and smile all at the same time.
Exiting slower corners, the front tyres start to scrub slightly. A Formula E car does have a higher percentage of its weight at the rear than a typical single seater, and maintains that balance because it doesnít burn fuel; perhaps that contributes some understeer. Yet if youíre just a little greedy on the throttle, itíll oversteer eagerly, especially in second gear. You need to be quick with corrections, but itís a lot of fun.
Familiarity with car and circuit increasing, I start to take more kerb and cut corners more heavily, following Birdís advice. Diving into a fast left-hander, I cut the left wheel slightly into a dusty compression and tense up, expecting a large thwack through the chassis, but it softens it all off like the wheel never left the circuit. The compliance is unreal, and essential on street circuits.
Earlier, Bird had told me to hold out for the brake board at the end of the long back straight, and I swear heís shifted it 50 metres upstream as a prank. It feels very, very late, especially as the speed is escalating so quickly as you hold out for the marker.
Towards the end of the stint, I steel myself to brake maybe just very slightly earlier as the hairpin zooms up.
I feel the brake pressure build up hard, and itís then that I have my lock-up. Bird says the grooved tyres are easy to lock, but are more resistant to flat-spotting than a slick.
Iím already getting mentally overloaded, but in races, Bird will blend his braking with a pull on the re-gen paddle to feed more energy back into the battery, and sometimes brake even later because heís going just a little slower to conserve energy.
Understanding what heís doing is relatively simple, but how he strings it all together during a race as a pack of world-class drivers bear down on him is incredibly impressive.
Me? After about eight laps, Iím about five seconds off Birdís pace. During a race, Iíd be running around like a stray safety car. But Iím happy enough with that, and even happier to bring it home in one piece.
BATTERY IS A STRUCTURAL COMPONENT, WEIGHS 250KG AND PRODUCES 28kWh. WITH TWO CARS PER RACE AND 56kWh CONSUMED, THATíS COMPARABLE TO SIX LITRES OF PETROL
THREE-SPEED GEARBOX MUST USE THE SAME RATIOS ALL SEASON; ENGINEERS HAVE TO COMPROMISE. FOR NOW, CARS ARE REAR-DRIVE; EXPECT ALL-WHEEL DRIVE IN THE FUTURE
TEAMS CAN DESIGN THEIR OWN REAR SUSPENSION AND POWERTRAIN PACKAGING SOLUTIONS. ELECTRIC MOTOR PRODUCES UP TO 200kW IN QUALI TRIM; 170kW FOR RACES